Hardness: tools made of tool steel have sufficiently high hardness after heat treatment. For example, tools used for metal cutting are generally above HRC60. The tools can still maintain high cutting speed and high temperature heating conditions generated by machining hard materials. High hardness and good red hardness. Generally, carbon tool steel and alloy tool steel can maintain high hardness at the working temperature of 180℃-250℃, and high-speed tool steel can still maintain high hardness at about 600℃. Red hardness is a very important property for hot-deformed molds and steels for high-speed cutting tools.
Wear resistance: Tool steel has good wear resistance, that is, the ability to resist wear. The tool retains its shape and size under considerable pressure and friction.
Strength and toughness: Tool steel has a certain strength and toughness, so that the tool can withstand complex stresses such as load, impact, vibration and bending during work to ensure the normal use of the tool.
Other properties: Due to the different working conditions of various tools, tool steel also has some other properties, such as mold steel should also have certain high-temperature mechanical properties, thermal fatigue properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. In addition to the above-mentioned performance properties, tool steel should also have good process properties.
Machinability: Tool steel should have good hot press workability and machinability to ensure the manufacture and use of tools. The workability of steel depends on chemical composition, structure and quality.
Quenching temperature range: The quenching temperature range for tool steels should be wide enough to reduce the possibility of overheating.
Hardenability and Hardenability: Hardenability is the highest hardness property of a steel after it has been quenched. The hardenability is mainly related to the chemical composition of the steel, especially the carbon content. The higher the carbon content, the higher the hardenability of the steel. Hardenability refers to the hardness distribution of the steel from the surface to the interior after quenching. The level of hardenability is related to the chemical composition, purity and grain size of the steel.
Depending on the tool used for manufacturing, there are certain requirements for both properties.
Decarburization sensitivity: Decarburization on the surface of the tool will reduce the hardness of the surface layer, so the decarburization sensitivity of the tool steel is required to be low. Under the same heating conditions, the decarburization susceptibility of steel depends on its chemical composition.
Heat treatment deformability: tools are required to be stable in size and shape during heat treatment.
Grindability: Steel for the manufacture of knives and gauges. Good grindability is required. The grindability of steel is related to its chemical composition, especially the vanadium content. If the mass fraction of vanadium is not less than 0.50%, the grindability will deteriorate.